EDUCATIONAL EVALUATION PAPER DEFINITION OF MEASUREMENT, ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
DEFINITION OF MEASUREMENT, ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
Supporting Lecturer : Afdhal Divine, S.Pd.I., M.Pd
Mutiara Tapsel Siregar : 20140006
Listi Aulia Siregar : 20140013
Nasrul Halim Siregar : 20140110
PRIMARY TEACHER EDUCATION
FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND LANGUAGES
SOUTH TAPANULI INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION
Praise to the presence of Allah SWT for all His grace and guidance so that we can complete the paper "Educational Evaluation on the Definition of Measurement, Assessment and Evaluation" on time. This paper was prepared to fulfill the assignment for the Education Evaluation course.
The purpose of preparing this paper is so that readers can broaden knowledge and knowledge about "Definition of Assessment and Evaluation Measurement". Our thanks go to the lecturers in the Educational Evaluation course, friends and all parties who have helped finish this paper, especially the help of ALLAH SWT who gave us health so that this paper can be completed on time.
With all humility, we really hope for constructive criticism and suggestions, so that we can prepare the paper even better. Hopefully this paper can be useful for readers.
Padangsidempuan, 06 February 2023
LIST OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ii
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION 1
A. Background 1
B. Problem Formulation 2
C. Purpose 2
CHAPTER II: DISCUSSION 3
A. Definition of Measurement, Assessment and Evaluation 3
B. The Difference Between Measurement, Assessment, and Evaluation 7
C. Purpose of Teaching Evaluation 9
D. Teaching Evaluation Function 10
E. Author's Analysis of Learning Evaluation 14
CHAPTER III : CLOSING 16
A. Conclusion 16
B. Saran 16
Measurement is a process of assigning a number to a certain characteristic possessed by a certain person, thing or object according to clear rules or formulations. Based on this view, it appears that all activities in this world cannot be separated from measurement. The success of a program can be known through a measurement, as well as the development of science and technology.
Basically measurement is an activity to determine the number for an object systematically. Determination of this figure is an attempt to describe the characteristics of an object. A person's ability in a certain field is expressed by numbers. Errors that occur in the measurement of social sciences are usually caused by measuring instruments, ways of measuring and the state of the object being measured. The problem of evaluating learning outcomes includes the measuring instruments used, how to use them, how to assess and evaluate them.
Precise measurements can provide accurate information regarding the mastery of a person or group of people on the material being studied, and this information is useful for making decisions. The expertise of the measuring instrument can be seen from the construct of the measuring instrument, namely measuring as planned. A good measuring instrument gives constant results when used repeatedly, as long as the ability being measured does not change. Measurement of learning outcomes in schools is carried out using a measuring instrument in the form of an instrument in which this tool is used to measure cognitive learning outcomes which is called a test.
The test as a measuring tool contains a series of questions or tasks that must be answered, done or carried out.
B. PROBLEM FORMULATION
What is the meaning of measurement, assessment, and evaluation?
What is the difference between measurement, assessment and evaluation?
What is the purpose of teaching evaluation?
What are the functions of teaching evaluation?
Students are able to explain:
Know the meaning of measurement, assessment, and evaluation.
Know the difference between measurement, assessment, and evaluation.
Knowing the purpose of teaching evaluation.
Know the teaching evaluation function.
A. DEFINITION OF MEASUREMENT, ASSESSMENT, AND EVALUATION
Measurement is one of the procedures that can be taken to determine evaluation, meaning that measurements are carried out in order to collect information and data needed to make decisions in evaluation. The measurement term is defined by Gronlund and Linn (1985:5) in M. Ainin (2006) as follows. Measurement is a process to obtain a description in the form of numbers regarding the level of a person's traits or abilities.
Measurement is a concept which means the process of applying numbers to objects or symptoms based on predetermined rules. Thus measurement is an action to determine the amount or quantity of something, for example the length of the cloth and the area of the land.
According to Cangelosi (1995) what is meant by measurement (Measurement) is a process of collecting data through empirical observation to collect information that is relevant to a predetermined goal. In this case the teacher assesses student achievement by reading or observing what students do, observing their performance, hearing what they say and using their senses such as seeing, listening, touching and feeling.
According to Zainul and Nasution (2001) measurement has two main characteristics, namely: 1). Use of certain numbers or scales 2). According to a certain rule or formula.
Thus, measurement in the field of education means measuring the attributes or characteristics of certain students. In this case, it is not the students who are measured, but their characteristics or attributes. In line with this opinion, more concisely. In the fields of education, psychology, and other social variables, measurement activities usually use tests. In the history of its development, the rules regarding the awarding of numbers are based on a theory of psychological measurement called psychometric.
Assessment (assessment) of learning outcomes is an important component in learning activities. Efforts to improve the quality of learning can be achieved through improving the quality of the assessment system. Depdikbud (1994) in Zainal Arifin (2009) suggests "assessment is an activity to provide a variety of information on an ongoing and comprehensive basis about the processes and results that have been achieved by students." The word comprehensive means that the assessment is not only aimed at mastering one particular field, but includes aspects of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values.
Gronlund defines "assessment is a systematic process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information / data to determine the extent to which students have achieved learning objectives. Popham (1995) defines assessment in the context of education as an attempt to formally determine student status with respect to various educational interests.
Broyer & Ewel defines assessment as a process that provides information about individual students, about curriculum or programs, about institutions or anything related to institutions.
Duncan and Dunn (1992) in M. Ainin (2006) put forward the notion of assessment as a process of gathering information by teachers about students, by teachers about their teaching, or by students about their learning activities. In the 2004 curriculum, the term assessment is popular in the phrase authentic assessment which refers to various forms of assessment that reflect student learning outcomes, motivations, and their attitudes towards class activities. Authentic assessments can take the form of; (a) performance assessments that require students to respond orally or in writing; (b) Portfolio, which is a systematic collection of student work, for example student writing or articles ranging from concepts, revision 1, revision 2, to articles that can be analyzed to show student learning progress within a certain time frame; (c) Self-assessment ,
Thus, it can be concluded that assessment is a process or activity that is systematic and continuous to collect information about the process and learning outcomes of students in order to make decisions based on certain criteria and considerations. The decision in question is a decision about students, such as the grades to be given or also decisions about class promotion and graduation.
Assessment must be seen as one of the important factors that determine the success of the process and learning outcomes. Assessment activities must be able to provide information to teachers to improve their teaching abilities and help students achieve optimal learning development. The implication is that assessment activities must be used as a method or technique to educate according to pedagogical principles.
According to Chitendent (Djemari, 2008:6) in S.Eko Putro Widoyoko (2009) assessment activities in the learning process need to be directed at four things, namely:
Tracing, namely activities carried out to trace whether the learning process has taken place as planned or not. For this purpose, educators collect various information throughout the semester or school year through various forms of measurement to obtain an overview of the achievement of student learning progress
Checking, namely to find information whether there are deficiencies in students in the learning process.
Search, namely to find and find the causes of deficiencies that arise during the learning process
Conclusion, namely to conclude about the level of learning achievement that has been owned by students.
The word evaluation comes from the English evaluation which contains the basic word value "value". The word value or value in evaluation terms relates to the belief that something is good or bad, right or wrong, strong or weak, sufficient or not enough, and so on. In general, evaluation is defined as a process of considering a thing or phenomenon by using certain benchmarks that are qualitative in nature, for example good-bad, strong-weak, adequate-inadequate, high-low, and so on.
According to Carl H. Witherington (1957) in Zainal Arifin (2009) "an evaluation is a declaration that sometimes has or does not have value." The same thing was stated by Wand and Brown (1957), that evaluation means "...refer to the act or process to determine the value of something." Second
This opinion emphasizes the importance of value in evaluation. So, evaluation is related to value and meaning.
Evaluation is a process of providing information that can be used as a consideration for determining prices and services from the objectives achieved design, implementation, and impact to help make decisions, assist accountability, and improve understanding of phenomena. According to this formulation, the essence of evaluation is the provision of information that can be used as material for consideration in making decisions.
Based on the definitions above, it can be concluded that evaluation is a systematic and continuous process for collecting, describing, interpreting, and presenting information about a program to be used as a basis for making decisions. Formulate policies and develop further programs. The purpose of evaluation is to obtain accurate and objective information about a program. In addition, it is also used for the purposes of preparing the next program as well as formulating policies related to the program.
B. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEASUREMENT, ASSESSMENT, AND EVALUATION
1. Measurement (Measurement)
a. Anas Sudijono: Measurement or measurement (ing) or muqoyasah (Arabic) is an activity carried out to measure something. In essence, comparing something with or on the basis of a certain size.
b. Wina Sanjaya: Measurement relates to quantitative problems to obtain measured information, therefore in the measurement process certain tools are needed such as learning achievement tests.
c. Hamzah B.Uno: Measuring is comparing something with a certain size and is quantitative in nature.
d. Wandt and Brown: Measurement means an action or process to determine the area or quantity of something.
2. Assessment (assessment)
a. Smarna Surapranata; The process of concluding and interpreting facts and making basic professional judgments to make decisions on a set of information, namely information about students.
b. Anasudijono: The process of making decisions about something based on oneself or adhering to good or bad standards. Healthy or sick, smart or stupid. It is qualitative in nature.
c.Nana Sudjana: Appraisal is the process of determining the value of an object. Assessment is the process of assigning or determining value to certain objects based on certain criteria. The scoring process takes place in the form of interpretation which ends with judgment and decision making.
d. Hamzah B. Uno: Making decisions on something with consistent, subjective and qualitative measurements.
e. Djaali & Pudji Mulyono: An action or process of determining the value of an object. Appraisal is a decision about value. Assessment can be made based on measurement results or can also be influenced by measurement results.
f. Robret J. Gregory: Assessment or assessment is the process of assigning or determining value to certain objects based on certain criteria. The process of giving the value is an interpretation that ends with judgment. Interpretation with judgment is a theme of judgment that implies a comparison between criteria and reality in the context of a particular situation.
g. Mehrens and Lehman: Assessment is a process of planning, obtaining and providing information that is needed to make alternatives and decisions.
a. Wandt and Gerald W. Brown: An act or a process to determine the value of something.
b. Anas Sudijono: Educational Evaluation is an action or activity (which is carried out with the intention of) or a process (takes place in order) to determine the value of everything in the world of education (related to it, or what happens in the field of education).
c. Martin Tassmer: Evaluation is the collection of data to determine the value obtained by an individual, whether good or bad.
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d. W. James Popham: Evaluation is the process of finding, collecting and providing data (information) to decision makers needed to give consideration to whether the program needs to be repaired, stopped or continued.
e. Lenora Layola Oriondo and Eleanor M. Dallo Antonio: Evaluation is the process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information obtained through measurement to provide some meaning based on value judgments.
C. PURPOSE OF TEACHING EVALUATION
1. General Purpose
In general, there are two objectives of evaluation in the field of education, namely:
To obtain evidence data, which will be an indication of the level of ability and level of success of students in achieving curricular goals, after they have taken the learning process within a predetermined period of time.
To measure and assess the extent to which teaching effectiveness and teaching methods have been implemented or carried out by educators, as well as learning activities carried out by students.
2 . Special purpose
The specific objectives of evaluation activities in the field of education are:
To stimulate the activities of students in taking educational programs. Without evaluation, it is impossible to generate excitement or stimulation in students to improve and increase their respective achievements.
To find and find the factors that cause the success of students in participating in educational programs, so that solutions can be found and ways to improve them.
D. TEACHING EVALUATION FUNCTION
In general, evaluation as an action or process or at least has three main functions, namely:
Repair or make improvements again.
In particular, the function of evaluation in the world of education can be seen from three sides:
Psychological evaluation will provide guidance and inner guidance for them to recognize their capacity and status in the midst of their group or class.
Dictatory evaluation (especially evaluation of learning outcomes) will be able to provide encouragement or motivation for them to be able to
improve, enhance, and maintain its performance. Tactically, there are 5 evaluations of educators, namely:
Provide a basis for assessing the results of efforts or achievements that have been achieved by students. Here, evaluation is said to function as checking or diagnosing, namely examining which parts students generally experience difficulties in following the problem, so that further solutions can be sought and found or ways of solving them. So here the evaluation has a diagnostic function.
Provides very useful information, in order to know the position of each student in the middle of the group. In this connection, evaluation is needed to be able to determine with certainty, in which group a student should be placed. Educational evaluation functions to place students according to their respective groups. For example: the upper group (intelligent group), the middle group (average) and the lower group (weak).
Provide material that is important for selecting and then placing the status of learners. In this connection, educational evaluation is carried out to determine whether a student who has passed or failed can be declared graded or accepted in a particular major or not. Can be given a scholarship or not and so on. Thus evaluation has a selective function.
Provide guidelines for finding and determining solutions for students who really need them. In the evaluation results, it is possible for educators to be able to provide instructions and guidance to students: for example on how to study well, manage study time, how to read and study textbooks and so on. So that what is faced now is the difficulties experienced by students can be overcome as well as possible. In these circumstances evaluation serves as guidance.
Provides guidance on how far the predetermined teaching program has been achieved. Evaluation is said to have an instructional function, namely making comparisons between the specific instructional objectives that have been determined by each subject with the learning outcomes that have been achieved by students for each of these subjects within a predetermined period of time.
3. Administrative aspects
Administratively, educational evaluation has three functions, namely:
By conducting an evaluation, reports will be prepared and presented regarding the progress and development of students after participating in the learning process within a certain period of time. Reports on the development and progress of student learning are also generally contained in the form of student learning progress report books which are better known as report cards for school to secondary levels or study results cards for students which are then given to each parent in each semester.
Providing information materials (data)
Every educational decision must be based on complete and accurate data. In this connection, the values of student learning outcomes obtained from evaluation activities are very important data for the purposes of making educational decisions and educational institutions whether a student can be declared a class, stays in class, pass or fail.
Give an Overview
An overview of the results that have been achieved in the learning process is reflected in the learning outcomes of the students. From the evaluation of learning outcomes that have been carried out for various types of subjects, for example, it will be reflected in certain subjects, for example, mathematics and natural sciences. An overview of the quality of student learning outcomes can also be obtained based on data in the form of pure ebtanas scores, cumulative grade points and others.
E. THE AUTHOR'S ANALYSIS OF EVALUATION
Educational evaluation is a process of collecting data to determine to what extent, in what ways, and which part of the educational goals have been achieved. If not, how is it not and what causes it.
So, learning evaluation is the process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information systematically to determine the achievement of learning objectives. Evaluation of learning is very important to do because we have to know whether or not a learning system is effective or not applied by educators. Because if an educator does not
evaluation, it's the same as the teaching staff there is no progress in designing learning systems.
The role of learning evaluation in the learning process is to get a better understanding of the learning outcomes that have been carried out, making decisions about implementation and learning outcomes, providing good quality for the learning process in the future.
Measurement is an activity to compare something with a certain size and is quantitative. Assessment is making a decision on something with a good or bad size. Measurement and assessment have an inseparable relationship. Measurement and assessment function as monitoring of the performance of these components in achieving the ultimate goal of the teaching and learning process. Meanwhile, evaluation is the whole activity in the form of measurement or assessment to make decisions about the level of learning outcomes achieved by students.
The purpose of teaching evaluation is divided into two, namely general and specific goals. The teaching evaluation functions include measuring progress, supporting planning, and repairing or refining.
Tests, measurements, assessments, and evaluations have different meanings and functions, but all of them cannot be separated in the world of education because they are all closely related.
We, the authors, realize that there are still many shortcomings in this paper. For that we ask for criticism and suggestions for the formation of better papers and materials. Hopefully this paper can add insight to every reader and can be useful for all of us.
Ainin, M. 2006. Evaluation in Arabic Language Learning. Malang: Misikat.
Arifin, Zainal. 2009. Learning Evaluation. Bandung: PT Juvenile Rosdakarya.
Arikunto, Suharsimi. 2012. Evaluation of Education Programs. Jakarta: PT Bumi Aksara.
Nurgiyantoro, Burhan. 2010. Assessment of Competency Language Learning. Yogyakarta: BPFE.
Sudijono, Annas. 2013. Introduction to Educational Evaluation. Jakarta: Rajawali Press.
Widiyoko, Puto Eko. 2009. Evaluation of Learning Programs. Yogyakarta: Student Libraries.
QUESTIONS AND FEEDBACK
1. Yenita Putri (Group 4)
Question: Explain what are the obstacles in conducting learning evaluations? If so, try to explain
- Teachers have difficulty making process assessment instruments
- Teachers have difficulty developing instruments in making test questions
- The teacher's difficulty in giving an assessment of students' attitudes in the learning process is time freedom, the large number of students in one class and the difficulty of directing students to instill good attitudes in accordance with learning objectives.
Nurul Fadilah Sitanggang :
The value of student learning outcomes is low and even bad, which is influenced by the teacher's learning strategy, which does not match the characteristics of students so that students feel bored with learning. In this case, usually the teacher already knows the cause of low student learning outcomes. However, teachers still use these learning strategies in class.
2. Noni Yusnaida Harahap (Group 3 ):
What efforts can improve the quality of learning in assessment!
1) Participate in upgrading (guiding, providing, education, training courses, additions to improve
skill knowledge ability
2) Follow educational courses
3) Read more
4) Conduct visits to other schools
5) Establish a relationship with the homeroom teacher
Rachel Diamond Agustina:
- Reading teacher movement
- Participate in training that supports teacher quality
- Creating a learning organizational culture, meaning creating an environment that supports learning activities so as to improve the quality of teacher teaching in the classroom.
3) Princess Regina Daulay (group of 12):
What things need to be considered before conducting an evaluation and assessment and what is the solution if a teacher fails to carry out an evaluation and assessment?
- needs analysis
-Determine the purpose of the assessment
- identify competencies and learning outcomes
- arrange the grid
- develop instrument drafts
- trial and error analysis
- Create and set learning plans and objectives
- determine the appropriate assessment technique
- implementation of the assessment process
- analyze the assessment
- customize learning
The solution if it fails, namely learning evaluation is very important to do to find out the effectiveness of a learning system implemented by educators, because if an educator fails to evaluate and assess the teaching staff, there will be no progress in designing learning systems.
Novita Irawan Siregar
We add that as teachers we are better when before conducting an evaluation we first know what to assess for example attitude, attendance, tests, exams
Palinsia Yanti Purba
In my opinion, there is little chance of failure when the teacher evaluates and assesses, because before teaching the government conducts technical guidance to educators, so that educators have more control over matters in evaluating and assessing, if that failure occurs, in my opinion, the solution is that the teacher pays more attention and understand the character and learning style of students, so that the teacher understands better in managing the class.
4) Nurisa Hutabarat (group 9)
What will happen if education does not apply evaluation first in the learning process? And is there any impact on students!
Because if an educator does not carry out an evaluation, it is the same as the teaching staff there is no progress in designing a learning system. So that students may feel bored with the learning system that is always the same.
Miss Padang Alternating Please:
Without an evaluation, we don't know the progress/setbacks that have occurred in an evaluation process. It is necessary to review what happened before, the obstacles to the problems faced, how far the understanding of the material provided is.
Rachel Intan Agustina :
If an evaluation is not made or carried out, then it is the same as not developing a student, the teacher is also overwhelmed and does not know how far the learning has been known by students. The weakening of teacher morale, there is no evaluation, there will be manipulative value report cards, the goal is to get the title of a good quality school.