HISTORY OF THE GROWTH OF ISLAMIC LAW IN INDONESIA
Arranged by :
LANNA SARI RITONGA
Supporting Lecturer: AFDAL ILAHI M.PD
PANCASILA AND CITIZENSHIP EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND LANGUAGES
SOUTH TAPANULI INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION (IPTS)
All praise be to Allah, who still gives us countless graces and gifts, so that we can still carry out our normal activities as they should. Furthermore, shalawat accompanied by greetings we praise and exalt to the spirit of the great Prophet Muhammad SAW, who is Uswatun Hasanah for the whole world, as a good role model and whom we look forward to intercession in the final yaumil. Thank God we say to Allah SWT, for His grace so that we are still able to complete this paper assignment for the course "ISLAMIC LAW" in a timely manner. In the writing and content of this paper, of course, it is still far from perfect and there are still many mistakes and shortcomings, for that we hope that it will be in the form of criticism and suggestions from readers for this paper so that it will be even better in the future. Thank You
Padangsidimpuan, March 5, 2023
LIST OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1
Problem Formulation 3
CHAPTER II DISCUSSION 4
A. Islamic Law During the Independence Period 4
B. Islamic law during the Old Order and New Order 11
C. Islamic Law During the Reformation Period to the Present 17
CHAPTER III CLOSING 20
A set of sacred rules revealed to the Prophet Muhammad SAW is Islamic law communicated to mankind, especially the ummah, in the form of aqidah (beliefs) and legal rules related to amaliyah (behavior). Sharia is God's rules, statistical, dynamic, based on hadith and Al-Quran in life, and can provide answers in line with time, conditions and can be applied in every life in individual and group social forms.
Islam was brought in by Arab traders in the VII century AD or IH for the first time by bringing Islamic laws to the archipelago. The influence of Islam that entered Indonesia led to the emergence of new groups called ulama and santri, who wanted to distance themselves from the political influence of foreign rulers. Islam has been widely accepted as a liberating religion, liberating people from class differences and providing teachings about the dynamics of life. Ulama and santri have emerged as a new group free from the political influence of foreign rulers. The Ummah recognizes Islam as a liberating religion because it liberates individuals from the caste system and provides teachings about the dynamics of life.
So it is not an exaggeration to equate the period of Islamic development with the Renaissance, the rebirth of the doctrine of life, to provide guidelines for enjoying life in the world as if living forever in the consciousness of worship will die tomorrow.
At this time, Islamic law is part of the legal system of the archipelago, as well as a social phenomenon in society. As a social phenomenon, Islamic law has two dimensions, namely the maintenance and development dimensions. The maintenance dimension is directed at maintaining the continuity of Islamic law. Meanwhile, the development dimension is directed at the utilization of Islamic law as added value for society.
The journey of the development of Islamic law in the archipelago cannot be separated from Islamic history. Talking about Islamic law is the same as talking about religion. Joseph Sacht believes that it is impossible to learn Islam without studying Islamic law. This gives an indication that as a religious institution that has a big influence. Islamic law goes hand in hand with the development and widening of the Islamic region and its relations with other cultures and people. It seems that the development occurred early in the period .
Al-Khulafaur Rasyidin (11-14 H) who was the first caliph in which at that time the revelations had been stopped temporarily and began to emerge which needed a legal settlement. The status of Sharia law is very important, determining the outlook on life and behavior of Muslims themselves, and even being the main determinant of their outlook on life. This paper will explain the development of Islamic law in Indonesia since independence until now.
FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM
How Islamic Law During the Independence Period
Islamic Law During the Old Order and the New Order
How Islamic Law During the Reform Period Until Now
Knowing how Islamic law at the time of independence
Understand Islamic law during the Old Order and the New Order
Knowing Islamic law during the reformation period to the present
A. Islamic Law During the Independence Period
The legal systems that developed and applied in Indonesia were Islamic law, custom and colonialism. Of the three legal systems, Indonesia's domestic legal system takes the material for drafting statutory regulations, namely in the form of unification, namely the uniformity of regulations in one national law. The end of Indonesian colonialism also ended the period of acceptance and abolition of the application of Islamic law. To rearrange Islamic law into a previously accepted theory, Prof. Dr. Hazairin put forward the Receptie Exit theory, while Sayuti Thalib put forward the opposite of Receptie, namely the theory that customary law only applies if it does not conflict with Islamic law [Sajuti Thalib, Receptie A Contrario, (Jakarta; Bina Aksara 1982).
As an extension of the Receptie Exit theory and Receptie A Contrario theory, Ichtiyanto gave birth to an ontology. The theory explains that sharia is an integral part of national law. The existing theories form the basis for the application of Islamic law in Indonesia. The application of Islamic law, especially in the field of Islamic inheritance law. Therefore, when applying Islamic inheritance law, it is necessary to interpret the verses of the Qur'an in their context. This contextual interpretation is called Recoin Theory (Receptio Contextual Interpretatio).
With this method, the legal status of Islam during the independence period was significantly improved. Even though the majority of Indonesian people are Muslim, it is difficult to apply Islamic law. Since the state ideology that was elected was Pancasila, the Islamic legal format emerged slowly but surely. During this independence period, Sharia law experienced two periods, namely the period of persuasion and the period of power. The period of persuasion is the period of persuasive acceptance.
Sharia law, that is, one must believe and accept the source. All the results of the BPUPKI trial are convincing for the 1945 Constitution, even though the 1945 Constitution does not contain the seven words of the Jakarta Charter, according to Article 29 (1) and (2), Islamic law applies to people who are Indonesian Muslims.
The second period is the source of power, starting with the inclusion of the Jakarta Charter in 1959 with the Decree of the President of the Republic of Indonesia. The Preamble to the Presidential Decree stated: "that we believe that the Jakarta Charter dated June 22, 1945 animates the 1945 Constitution and is a series of units in the constitution." Therefore, the legal basis for the Jakarta Charter and the 1945 Constitution is contained in a statutory regulation, namely a Presidential Decree. Meanwhile, according to the Indonesian constitution, there is equal legal status between the two.
During this period, the legal status of Sharia remained unclear, as Muslims themselves still felt that there was a political game with great potential when it came to what Muslims aspired to.
1. Islamic Law in the Pre-Dutch Colonial Period
According to some historians, the historical roots of Islamic law in the archipelago began in the first century of the Hijriyah, or around the seventh and eighth centuries AD. As the gateway to the archipelago, it was the northern region of the island of Sumatra that was later used as the starting point for the missionary movement of Muslim immigrants. Gradually, the missionary movement formed the first Islamic community in Peureulak, East Aceh. The development of the Muslim community in the region was followed by the establishment of the first Islamic empire in the country in the thirteenth century. This kingdom is known as Samudera Pasai. It is located in the North Aceh region.
The influence of Islamic da'wah which quickly spread to various regions of the archipelago then caused several Islamic kingdoms to be established following the establishment of the Samudera Pasai Kingdom in Aceh. Not far from Aceh stood the Sultanate of Malacca, then on the island of Java stood the Sultanates of Demak, Mataram and Cirebon, then in Sulawesi and Maluku stood the Kingdom of Gowa and the Sultanates of Ternate and Tidore.
Of course, these sultanates – as recorded in history – then stipulated Islamic law as the applicable positive law. The establishment of Islamic law as positive law in each of these sultanates certainly strengthened its practice which had indeed developed in Muslim society at that time. These facts are proven by the presence of fiqh literature written by Indonesian scholars around the 16th and 17th centuries. And this condition continued until Dutch traders came to the archipelago.
2. Islamic Law during the Dutch Colonial Period
The forerunner of Dutch colonization of the archipelago began with the presence of the Dutch Trade Organization in the East Indies, or better known as the VOC. As a trading organization, the VOC can be said to have a role that exceeds its function. This was very possible because the Dutch Royal Government made the VOC its representative in the East Indies region. Therefore besides carrying out the function of trade, the VOC also represented the Kingdom of the Netherlands in carrying out governmental functions. Of course by using the Dutch law that they brought.
Dalam kenyataannya, penggunaan hukum Belanda itu menemukan kesulitan. Ini disebabkan karena penduduk pribumi berat menerima hukum-hukum yang asing bagi mereka. Akibatnya, VOC pun membebaskan penduduk pribumi untuk menjalankan apa yang selama ini telah mereka jalankan.
Kaitannya dengan hukum Islam, dapat dicatat beberapa “kompromi” yang dilakukan oleh pihak VOC, yaitu: Dalam Statuta Batavia yag ditetapkan pada tahun 1642 oleh VOC, dinyatakan bahwa hukum kewarisan Islam berlaku bagi para pemeluk agama Islam.
Adanya upaya kompilasi hukum kekeluargaan Islam yang telah berlaku di tengah masyarakat. Upaya ini diselesaikan pada tahun 1760. Kompilasi ini kemudian dikenal dengan Compendium Freijer. Adanya upaya kompilasi serupa di berbagai wilayah lain, seperti di Semarang, Cirebon, Gowa dan Bone.
Di Semarang, misalnya, hasil kompilasi itu dikenal dengan nama Kitab Hukum Mogharraer (dari al-Muharrar). Namun kompilasi yang satu ini memiliki kelebihan dibanding Compendium Freijer, dimana ia juga memuat kaidah-kaidah hukum pidana Islam.
Di Semarang, misalnya, hasil kompilasi itu dikenal dengan nama Kitab Hukum Mogharraer (dari al-Muharrar). Namun kompilasi yang satu ini memiliki kelebihan dibanding Compendium Freijer, dimana ia juga memuat kaidah-kaidah hukum pidana Islam.
This recognition of Islamic law continued even before the transfer of power from the British Empire to the Dutch Empire again. After Thomas Stanford Raffles served as governor for 5 years (1811-1816) and the Dutch returned to control of the Dutch East Indies, it became increasingly apparent that the Dutch were trying hard to grip the nails of their power in this region. However, this effort encountered difficulties due to religious differences between the colonialists and their colonized people, especially Muslims who were familiar with the concepts of dar al-Islam and dar al-harb. That is why the Dutch government is trying various ways to solve the problem.
Among them; (1) spreading Christianity to the indigenous people, and (2) limiting the applicability of Islamic law only to spiritual (spiritual) aspects.
If you want to conclude, the efforts to limit the application of Islamic law by the Dutch East Indies Government are chronologically as follows:
In the mid-19th century, the Dutch East Indies Government implemented a Conscious Legal Policy; namely a policy that consciously wants to rearrange and change legal life in Indonesia with Dutch law.
On the basis of the note submitted by Mr. Scholten van Oud Haarlem, the Government of the Netherlands instructed the use of religious laws, institutions and indigenous customs in the case of disputes that occurred between them, as long as they did not conflict with the generally recognized principles of decency and justice. This last clause then places Islamic law under the subordination of Dutch law.
On the basis of the reception theory issued by Snouck Hurgronje, the Dutch East Indies Government in 1922 then formed a commission to review the authority of the religious courts in Java in examining inheritance cases (on the grounds that it had not been accepted by local customary law).
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Pada tahun 1925, dilakukan perubahan terhadap Pasal 134 ayat 2 Indische Staatsregeling (yang isinya sama dengan Pasal 78 Regerringsreglement), yang intinya perkara perdata sesama muslim akan diselesaikan dengan hakim agama Islam jika hal itu telah diterima oleh hukum adat dan tidak ditentukan lain oleh sesuatu ordonasi.Lemahnya posisi hukum Islam ini terus terjadi hingga menjelang berakhirnya kekuasaan Hindia Belanda di wilayah Indonesia pada tahun 1942.
3. Hukum Islam pada Masa Pendudukan Jepang
After General Ter Poorten declared unconditional surrender to the Japanese military commander for the South on March 8, 1942, the Japanese Government immediately issued various regulations. One of them is Law Number 1 of 1942, which confirms that the Jepag Government continues all the powers previously held by the Governor General of the Dutch East Indies. Of course, this new stipulation has implications for the permanent position of the enforceability of Islamic law as it was in its final state during the Dutch occupation.
Nonetheless, the Japanese Occupation Government continued to carry out various policies to attract the sympathy of Muslims in Indonesia. Among others are:
The Japanese Military Commander's promise to protect and advance Islam as the religion of the majority of the population of the island of Java.
Established Shumubu (Office of Islamic Religious Affairs) led by the Indonesian people themselves.
Permitting the establishment of Islamic mass organizations, such as Muhammadiyah and NU.
Approved the establishment of the Indonesian Muslim Shura Council (Masyumi) in October 1943.
Approved the establishment of Hezbollah as a reserve force accompanying the establishment of PETA.
Trying to fulfill the pressure of Islamic leaders to restore the authority of the Religious Courts by asking a customary law expert, Soepomo, in January 1944 to submit a report on this matter. However, this effort was later "countered" by Soepomo for reasons of complexity and postponed it until Indonesia's independence. Thus, there was almost no significant change in the position of Islamic law during the Japanese occupation of the country. However, the Japanese occupation was better than the Dutch in terms of the new experience for Islamic leaders in managing religious matters.
Abikusno Tjokrosujoso stated that the Dutch government's policies had weakened the position of Islam. Islam does not have religious officials trained in mosques or Islamic courts. The Netherlands carried out political policies that weakened the position of Islam. When the Japanese troops arrived, they realized that Islam was a force in Indonesia that could be exploited.
B. Islamic Law in the Old Order and New Order Periods
PPKI or Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence as regional representatives from all islands in Indonesia. At the PPKI conference, Mr. Hatta confirmed Pancasila that the seven words contained in the first commandment were: "Believe in the One and Only God and are obliged to enforce Islamic law for his people". The decision to form a ministry of religion to handle religious affairs was a relief to Muslim nationalists.
The ideological conflict has not subsided even though the Ministry of Religion has been formed. After the issuance of the decree permitting the establishment of political parties, three forces that were previously in conflict reappeared, namely: the Indonesian Muslim Syuro Council (Mayumi) which was born on November 7, 1945 as a forum for the aspirations of Muslims, and the Indonesian Muslim Syuro Council (Mayumi) which was established on December 17, 1945 the Socialist Party which carried a Marxist philosophy of life, and the Indonesian National Party which gave place to a "secular" nationalist way of life emerged on January 29, 1946. The political parties that existed at that time could be divided into three ideological main streams.
From 1950 to 1955, the PNI and Masyumi participated in debates about the role of Islam and Communism. But Muslims themselves disagree. For example, in 1952 Nahdlatul Ulama (NXJ) left Masyumi and became an independent party. Religious orientation between Muhammadiyah and NU is also a debate between young and old. Unresolved riots between several political parties led to the 1995 national election (pemilu), which proved to be a watershed event in Indonesian history. The 1955 general election strengthened new forms of social thought and organization
Indonesia, and even developing a continuation of Indonesia's actual past. Since then, several Muslim parties have struggled to realize that although Indonesia is predominantly Muslim, Muslim parties are politically minorities. The controversy over the Jakarta charter decision continued into the post-independence period and became an argument for separatist movements such as Darul Islam in West Java and South Sulawesi as well as Aceh from 1948 to 1962. Constituent Assembly, Muslims put forward another challenge to Pancasila. State models since the close of the 1955 constitutional elections.
Because both sides failed to get the 2/3 votes needed to agree. Finally, Sukarno issued a presidential decree in May 1959 dissolving the Constituent Assembly. The development of Islam during the Old Order era (when the 1945 Constitution came into effect), the 1949 RIS Constitution and the 1950 Constitution were only limited to the realization of religious teachings as the basis of government. As a result, the ideological confusion between Muslim groups and nationalist groups has been tugging at each other in their respective ideological formulations. At the same time, during the democratic leadership period (1959-1966), Muslim groups were under great pressure because of the communist group's dominant role at the highest level of government.
The early 1970s was an important period for the development of Islam in Indonesia. In the first general election of the New Order era, Nurcholis Madjid as an intellectual raised the need to ignite the spirit of Islam. Cak Nur's thoughts clearly show the rejection of Islam as the basis of political ideology. Besides him, other reformers such as Harun Nasution and Abd Rahman Wahid also contributed to the idea. In addition to the development of Islamic thought by Islamic scholars in Islamic academic circles such as IAIN, Islamic boarding schools, Islamic institutions, etc., the ideological model of IAIN from the mid-1980s to the mid-1980s became one of the development directions. .
Islamic Thought in Indonesia. The development of religious thought in IAIN is marked by the proliferation of religious studies using social research methods. Apart from that, since the early 1990s, the Indonesian government has also begun to raise the demand for integrated water resources management. At its peak, the main agenda for the Integrated Water Management program in Indonesia is to replace Law Number 17 of 2019 concerning Water Resources.
2. Islamic law during the period of independence during the revolutionary period until the issuance of a presidential decree 5
Juli 1950Selama hampir lima tahun setelah proklamasi kemerdekaan, indonesia memasuki masa masa revolusi (1945 -1950). Menyusul kekalahan jepang oleh tentara -tentara sekutu, belanda ingin kembali menduduki kepulauan nusantara. Dari beberapa pertempuran, belanda berhasil menguasai beberapa wilayah indonesia, dimana ia kemudian mendirikan negara -negara kecil yang dimaksudkan untuk mengepung republik indonesia. Berbagai perundingan dan perjanjian kemudian dilakukan, hingga akhirnya tidak lama setelahlinggarjati, lahirlah apa yang di sebut dengan konstitusi indonesia serikat pada tanggal 27 desember 1949.
6Dengan berlakunya konstitusi RIS tersebut, maka UUD 1945 nyatakan berlaku sebagai konstitusi republik Indonesia yang merupakan satudari 16 bagian negara republik indonesia serikat. Konstitusi RIS sendiri jika di telaah, sangat sulit untuk dikatakan sebagai konstitusi yang menampung aspirasi hukum islam. Mukaddimah konstitusi ini misalnya, sama sekali tidak menegaskan posisi hukum islam sebagaimana rancangan UUD 1945 yang disepakati oleh BPUPKI. Demikian pula dengan batang tubuhnya, yang bahkan dipengaruhi oleh faham liberal yang berkembang di Amerika dan Eropa Barat, serta rumusan Deklarasi HAM versi PBBNamun saat negara bagian RIS pada awal tahun 1950 hanya tersisa tiga negara saja RI, negara sumatera timur, dan negara indonesia timur, salah seorang tokoh umat islam, muhammad nasir, mengajukan apa yang kemudian di kenal sebagai Mosi Integral Natsir sebagai upaya untuk melebur ketiga negara bagian tersebut. Akhirnya pada tanggal 19 mei 1950 semuanya sepakat membentuk kembali negara kesatuan republik Indonesia berdasarkan proklamasi 1945 Dan dengan demikian konstitusi RIS dinyatakan tidak berlaku digantikandengan UUD sementara 1950. Akan tetapi jika dikaitkan dengan hukum islam, perubahan ini tidaklah membawa dampak yang signifikan. Sebab ketidakjelasan posisinya masih ditemukan, baik dalam Mukadimah maupun batang tubuh UUD sementara 1950, kecuali pada pasal 34 yang rumusannya sama dengan pasal 29 UUD 1945, bahwa negara berdasar ketuhanan yang maha esa dan jaminan negaraterhadap kebebasan setiap penduduk menjalankan agamanya masing-masing. Juga pada pasal 43 yangmenunjukkanketerlibatan negara
7 in religious matters. Another advantage of the provisional 1950 Constitution is that it opens up opportunities to formulate Islamic law in the form of regulations and laws. This opportunity was found in the provisions of Article 102 of the 1950 Provisional Constitution. This opportunity was also taken advantage of by representatives of the Muslim community when submitting a bill on Muslim marriage in 1954. Although this attempt later failed due to obstacles by nationalists who also submitted a draft national marriage law. And after that, all the political figures then almost stopped thinking about making new law materials, because their concentration was on how to replace the 1950 provisional UUDS with a permanent law. The struggle to replace the temporary Constitution was then manifested in general elections to elect and form a constituent assembly at the end of 1955, the Assembly consisting of 514 people was then installed by President Soekarno on 10 November 1956. However, eight months before the deadline for his term of office, this assembly was dissolved through a presidential decree issued on 5 July 1959. An important day related to Islamic law in the event of this decree is its preamble which states that the Jakarta Charter dated 22 June animates the 1945 Constitution and is an integral part of the constitution. This of course elevates and clarifies the position of Islamic law in the Constitution. However, at the level of application, the political factor is the main determinant in this matter. on August 14, 1945, or two days before the proclamation of Indonesian independence on August 17, 1945. However, he gave up his aspirations to later join the Indonesian republic. But when RI's control over its territory declined due to Dutch aggression, especially after the proclamation of the establishment of the Islamic state of Indonesia in 1948. However, the trigger for the conflict ended in 1962 and recorded 25.
C. Hukum Islam Pada Masa Reformasi Hingga Saat Ini
Ketika era Reformasi menggantikan Orde Baru (1998), ada keinginan kuat untuk menegakkan hukum Islam. Kemajuan dalam perkembangan hukum Islam. Padahal, syariat sudah mulai tercermin dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat. Bidang penerapannya sangat luas, tidak hanya dalam masalah hukum perdata, tetapi juga dalam bidang hukum publik. Ini tunduk pada hukum pemerintahan sendiri setempat. UU Pemerintahan Daerah sendiri di Indonesia pada awalnya adalah UU No 4. 1. Keputusan Nomor 22 Tahun 1999 tentang “Pemerintah Daerah”, dilanjutkan dengan Keputusan Nomor 31 Tahun 2004 tentang “Otonomi Daerah”.
Oleh karena itu, untuk mengembangkan hukum Syariah, hukum Syariah diterapkan di banyak daerah. Meskipun hukum Islam tidak berkembang melalui struktur kepartaian, namun hukum Islam era reformasi sebagai kelanjutan dari era sebelumnya mampu berkembang pesat melalui jalur budaya. Ini adalah hasil tak terelakkan dari kemajuan yang dibuat oleh umat Islam di bidang ekonomi dan pendidikan.
Perkembangan Islam pada masa reformasi ini dibarengi dengan perkembangan budaya Islam. Keadaan ini didukung oleh beberapa undang-undang, seperti hukum positif Islam, UU No. 1. Keputusan Nomor 7 Tahun 1989 tentang Penyelidikan Nomor 3 Tahun 2006 dan Nomor 50 Tahun 2009; UU No. Keputusan No. 38 Tahun 1999 tentang “Penyelenggaraan Zakat”, UU No. 38. SK No. 17 Tahun 1999 No. 13 Tahun 2008 tentang “Penyelenggaraan Haji”, dan UU No. Nomor 21 Tahun 2008 tentang “Bank Umum Syariah.”
At the beginning of the reform, the 1999 GBHN set the policy direction and goals for the Indonesian nation. With the promulgation of the 1999 GBHN, Islamic law had a bigger and stronger position as a raw material for national law. [A. Qadri Azizy, The Eclecticism of State Law, (Yogyakarta; Gama Media 2002) Hal. 169.] The development of post-reform national law includes three equal and balanced sources of law, namely customary law, Western law, and Islamic law. All three are free and democratic competition, not mandatory.
In general, the application of Islamic law in Indonesian territories can be divided into two parts, namely full and partial implementation. Full implementation can be seen in the province of Nangroe Aceh Darussalam, which has a full nature because it is not limited to just enforcing the law, but has the structure of a law enforcement agency. Another area that is currently preparing is South Sulawesi (Makassar) which has formed a committee
Islamic Syari'at Enforcement (KPSI) and Garut district by establishing LP3Syl or Institute for the Study, Enforcement and Application of Islamic Syari'at. The enforcement of Islamic law has also spread to other regions in Indonesia, although the pattern is different from Aceh. Based on the principle of regional autonomy, regional regulations with the nuances of Islamic law emerged at the primary and secondary regional levels. These fields include: West Sumatra Regional Regulation No. November 2001 concerning Eradication and Prevention of Immoral Acts; Solok City Regional Regulation Number 10 of 2001 concerning the Obligation of Students and Wives to Read the Al-Quran; Regional Regulation No. 2 Padang Pariaman City.
The history of the growth of Islamic law in Indonesia takes the material for the preparation of statutory regulations, namely in the form of unification, namely the uniformity of regulations in one national law. The end of Indonesian colonialism also ended the period of acceptance and elimination of the application of Islamic law.
Sharia law in Indonesia is of course a living law, developed, understood and preserved by Muslims in this country. At the beginning of the 17th century AD, the information age was still possible.
In general, Islamization, Islam entered Indonesia in the first year of the Islamic calendar. The development of Islam in Indonesia saw the old order after independence at that time (the enactment of the constitution), the 1945 Constitution.
Hopefully with this paper the reader can understand the principles of Islamic law well so that they can be used for joint learning. The author expects readers to provide constructive criticism and input.
Afdol (2006) Authority of the Religious Courts Based on Law no. 3 of 2006 & Islamic Law Legislation in Indonesia, Surabaya.
Azizy Qadri A (2002) National Legal Eclecticism, Yogyakarta. Boland. B.J
(1985) Islamic struggles in Indonesia, Jakarta.
Try to explain what are the main factors driving the development of Islamic law in Indonesia?
Because there are many people, the possibility of developing Islamic law is wider, and the law is not forced.
Which country was the first to spread Islam in Indonesia and why did Islam spread quickly?
Gujarat ( India) and they spread Islam by means of trade, marriage, education, arts so that people who see them are inspired to follow their teachings (Islam).
Since when did the PKI come to Indonesia and what caused the PKI to come to Indonesia?
The PKI was founded by Henk Sneevliet formed on 23 May 1914 and was disbanded on 12 March 1966 which was based in Jakarta.
The emergence of communism in Indonesia was motivated by the economic disparities that occurred in various European countries, especially in the industrial sector. At that time, people in power were more concerned with their own economic welfare, while farmers and laborers experienced oppression.