SYARI'AH WORSHIP AND MU'AMALAH IN ISLAM
The scope of Islamic teachings includes three main things, namely: Aqidah, Worship, and Muamalah. Aqidah in a narrow sense is a bond, namely a human bond with what he believes.
While sharia contains rules and regulations, which regulate activities that should be carried out. Sharia is a value system which is the core of Islamic teachings. In the Shari'a there are those that regulate the relationship between humans vertically and Allah. In this context, the Shari'a contains provisions regarding the procedures for human worship with Allah. This human relationship with God is called mahdhah worship or special worship.
Besides that, there is sharia that regulates human relations horizontally, namely: relations between humans and other creatures. The so-called muamalah. The existence of this muamalah subsystem proves that Islam does not leave worldly affairs and does not even separate worldly affairs from the hereafter. This horizontal relationship is also known as ghair mahdhah worship or public worship because of its general nature and does not specify the types and types.
The presence of the Islamic religion brought by the Prophet Muhammad is believed to guarantee the realization of a human life that is physically and mentally prosperous. Religious instructions regarding various human lives, as found in the sources of their teachings, the Qur'an and Hadith, appear to be very ideal and noble. Islam teaches a dynamic and progressive life, respecting reason through the development of science and technology, being balanced in meeting material and spiritual needs, always developing social awareness, respecting time, being open, democratic, quality-oriented, egalitarian, partnership, anti- feudalistic, loves cleanliness, prioritizes brotherhood, has noble character and other positive attitudes.
According to Fazlur Rahman, explicitly the basic teachings of the Koran are morals which emit an emphasis on monotheism and social justice. This can be seen, for example, in the teachings of worship which are full of content of increasing faith, piety which is manifested in noble character.
The value of a science is determined by the content of that knowledge. The greater the value of the benefits, the more important the knowledge is to learn. The most important knowledge is the knowledge that introduces us to Allah SWT, the Creator. So that people who do not know Allah SWT are stupid people, because no one is more stupid than people who do not know their creator.
God created man with the most beautiful and complete form compared to other creatures/creations. Then God guided them by sending His Messengers (according to the hadith narrated by Abu Dzar that the number of Prophets was 124,000 people, but the actual number only God knows), all of them called for monotheism (narrated by Al Bukhari in At Tarikhul Kabir 5 /447 and Ahmad in Al Musnad 5/178-179). While from the path of the companion of Abu Umamah it is mentioned that the number of Messengers is 313 (narrated by Ibnu Hibban in Al Maurid 2085 and Ath-Thabrani in Al Mu'jamul Kabir 8/139) so that they walk in accordance with the will of the Creator through the revelation brought by the Messenger . People who accept are called believers,
Such is the importance of this aqidah, so that the Prophet Muhammad SAW, the closing of the Prophets and Apostles guided his people for 13 years when he was in Mecca by emphasizing the issue of this aqidah, because aqidah is the basis of all actions, in fact it is the foundation of the building of Islam. Therefore, preachers and religious rectifiers at all times always begin their da'wah with monotheism and streamlining aqidah.
Shari'ah is a designation for the main teachings of Allah and His Messenger which is a way or guideline for human life in carrying out a vertical relationship with the Creator, Allah SWT, and also with fellow human beings.
There are two approaches in defining Shari'ah, which include:
In terms of objectives, Shari'ah has the meaning of teachings that protect human dignity as the noblest creature by maintaining or guaranteeing five important things, namely:
1. Guarantee freedom of religion (Believe in the One and Only God)
2. Ensure a decent life (nourish the soul)
3. Ensure family survival (safeguarding offspring)
4. Guarantee freedom of thought (maintain reason)
5. Ensuring life with the availability of proper employment (maintaining assets)
The five things of maintenance will be a measure of the five Islamic laws, such as obligatory, sunnat, haram, makruh, and mubah.
The following below is the meaning of Worship, according to Ustadz Yazid bin Abdul Qadir Jawas:
Worship in language (etymology) means humble and submissive. Meanwhile, according to syara' (terminology), worship has many definitions, but the meaning and purpose is one. These definitions include:
. Worship is obedience to Allah by carrying out His commands through the words of His Apostles.
. Worship is to humble oneself to Allah Azza wa Jalla, which is the highest level of submission accompanied by the highest sense of mahabbah (love).
. Worship is a term that includes all that is loved and pleased by Allah Azza wa Jalla, whether in the form of words or deeds, both outwardly and inwardly. This third is the most complete definition.
Worship is the goal of human creation. Allah says:
"Meaning: And I did not create jinn and humans except so that they worship Me. I do not want any provision from them and I do not want them to feed Me. Verily Allah is the Giver of sustenance Who has strength and is very strong." [Adz-Dzaariyaat: 56-58.
In carrying out our daily lives, it is important for us to remember the two principles above. Worship cannot be done at will because all the provisions and rules have been stipulated in the Al-Qur'an and Sunnah, as well as examples and procedures have been taught by Rasulullah SAW during his lifetime. Doing something in worship, which is not mentioned in the Al-Qur'an and Sunnah means doing something that is not ordered by Allah SWT, and this is truly a misguided act.
In terms of language, muamalah comes from the word aamala, yuamilu, muamalat which means treatment or action towards other people, a relationship of interests. Words like this are active verbs which must have two actors, one of which is actively doing the work of the other, so that the two actors suffer from one another.
The definition of muamalah in terms of terms can be interpreted in a broad sense and can also be interpreted in a narrow sense. Below are put forward several definitions of muamlah;
According to Louis Ma'luf, the notion of muamalah is sharia laws relating to world affairs and human life, such as buying and selling, trading, and so on. Meanwhile, according to Ahmad Ibrahim Bek, muamalah are regulations concerning everything related to world affairs, such as trade and all regarding material things, marriage, talaq, sanctions, judiciary and those related to office management, both general and special, which have been general or global and detailed basics are set to serve as a guide for humans in exchanging benefits between them.
Whereas in a narrow sense is the notion of muamalah, namely muamalah are all transactions or agreements made by humans in terms of exchanging and in terms of accounts payable.
Allah SWT said in Surah Al Baqarah Verse 280 which reads
Meaning: And if (the debtor) is in difficulty, then give him a reprieve until he is able to afford it. And giving charity (part or all of the debt) is better for you, if you know.
From the various meanings of muamalah, it is understood that muamalah is all the rules that govern the relationship between fellow human beings, both those of the same religion and those who are not of the same religion, between humans and their lives, and between humans and the surrounding environment. And Allah SWT also commands humans to interact and muamalah by spreading on the face of the earth to seek Allah's sustenance. As Allah SWT said in Surat Al Jumah verse 10 which reads:
It means: When the prayer has been performed, then you are scattered on the face of the earth; and seek God's bounty and remember God a lot so that you will be successful.
Prayer is one of the acts of worship that upholds the pillars of Islam. Prayer in Islam has a very important position for humans who fear Allah SWT. The main goal of prayer is that people who do it always remember Allah SWT at all times. So that humans are always aware of all heinous and unjust acts that will plunge them into the valley of misery in this world and the hereafter. As the Word of Allah SWT. Thaha's letter: 14.
Meaning: Verily I am Allah, there is no God (the right) but me, so worship Me and establish prayer to remember Me. (QS. Thaha: 14)
Someone who always remembers Allah SWT, will always perform Salat, because he obeys His command, then Allah will shower His mercy. As His words: Meaning: And Establish prayer, pay zakat, and obey the messenger, so that you will be given mercy. (QS. An-Nur: 56)
Meaning of Prayer
According to lughat, Shalat comes from Arabic which means "pray" (a good supplication to Allah) and "surrender".
According to istilakhi, prayer is a certain worship which is composed of several words and actions that start from takbirotul ikhrom and end with nature, with predetermined conditions and pillars.
Prayer is a basic practice that has more value compared to other acts of worship, a tool that is also a benchmark for human deeds and a differentiator between believers and unbelievers. And prayer is also an effective medium for communicating between humans and God. For this reason, in Islam, prayer has a very important position.
Prayers can be grouped into two groups, namely:
1. Obligatory prayers: Prayers that must be performed by every Muslim who is already a Muslim (Islamic, mature and sane) under any circumstances 5 times a day and night or commonly called maktubah.
2. Sunnah prayers: Prayers that are recommended to be performed, but if you leave them without sin, this prayer is usually called nawafil prayer. Among them are rowatib sunnah prayers, Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, istiqo' prayers, istikharah prayers, tahiyatul mosque prayers, eclipse prayers, witr prayers and so on.
1. Prayer is the pillar of religion, as the Prophet Muhammad said. Meaning: Prayer is the pillar of religion, whoever establishes prayer means upholding religion, whoever leaves it means he has destroyed religion. (Narrated by Baihaqi)
This hadith shows how important the position of prayer is, every Muslim who performs prayer destroys his religion. Therefore, we as Muslims must always pay attention to prayer as well as possible. Carry out prayers properly and correctly so that Islam remains strong and remains upright.
2. Prayer is worship that was ordered directly from Allah SWT to the prophet Muhammad SAW without intermediaries. The order occurred during the Isro' Mi'roj event.
3. Prayer is the first worship that he will be responsible for in the afterlife. As the hadith of the prophet: Meaning: The first thing to be accounted for from one's deeds on the Day of Judgment is prayer. If the prayer is good then all his deeds are good, and if the prayer is bad then all his deeds are broken. (Narrated by Tabrani from Umar)
4. Prayer is a benchmark for human deeds. If a person prays well, in the sense that the conditions and pillars are correct and on time, then the prayer will be able to animate his behavior in everyday life. As the hadith above.
5. Prayer is the difference between a believer and an infidel, as the Prophet SAW said: Meaning: The difference between a believer and an infidel is leaving prayer. (Narrated by Ahmad and Muslim)
6. Prayer as the second pillar of Islam. Islam has 5 pillars, all five of which are a unified whole and cannot be separated from one another, all unite and support each other, while Prayer is the second of the 5 pillars.
The wisdom of prayer for human life is as follows:
1. Get used to living clean, before prayer must be clean of hadats and unclean. Good body, clothing and place. As the hadith of the Prophet SAW.
Meaning: Cleanliness is part of faith. (HR. Muslim)
2. Creating a healthy life, including: improving blood circulation from the heart throughout the body, improving the location of the fetus that is not good, healing the spine and others.
3. Practicing discipline, Prayer must be on time. As the word of Allah QS. An-Nisa: 103. Meaning: Indeed, prayer is obligatory at a specified time. (QS. An-Nisa' : 103)
4. Preventing heinous and unjust acts. (QS. Al-Ankabut: 45)
It means : . . . Verily prayer prevents from (deeds) abominable and unjust. . .
5. Calms the mind (QS. Toha: 14 and Ar-Rakdu: 28)
Meaning: Verily I am Allah, there is no God (the right) but me, so worship Me and establish prayer to remember Me. (QS. Toha: 14)
6. Practicing patience (QS. Luqman: 17)
Meaning: O my son, establish prayer and order (people) to do good and prevent (them) from doing evil and be patient with what befalls you.
7. Increase brotherhood. As the hadith of the Prophet:
Meaning: A believer with other believers is like a building, some strengthen the other parts. (Narrated by Buchari and Muslim)
8. Educating people to trust, obey and obey the leaders who give orders.
9. Become a cover for minor sins, as long as major sins are not committed.
Fasting comes from the Arabic word saum which means leaving something or refraining from something. Meanwhile, according to the term, saum is refraining from something that breaks the fast from sunrise to sunset with the intention to fast. The wisdom is as follows:
1. A sign of gratitude to God, because all worship means thanking God as His word. Meaning: If you count the favors (gifts) of Allah to you, surely you will not be able to count them. (QS. Abraham: 34)
2. Practicing discipline. Fasting is a means of effort to be able to control oneself from greed, eat according to the specified time and speak not arbitrarily.
3. Formation of noble character. Fasting is a means of education and training in order to become Muslim and Muslim women who are able to familiarize themselves with a commendable attitude of behavior. As the words of the Messenger of God, peace and blessings be upon him, which means: "When you fast, do not speak dirty words and shout saying: I am fasting for the sake of God in whose power Muhammad is, indeed the smell of the mouth of a fasting person is more fragrant in the sight of God than the smell of oil musk, the person who fasts will get two joys, when breaking the fast and when meeting his Lord. (HR. Bukhari and Muslim)
4. Development of social values. Encouraging fasting people, especially wealthy people, to provide assistance to the poor, orphans and neglected children. The suffering of hunger that wealthy people feel when fasting will encourage them to pay zakat, infaq and sadaqah to help their suffering brothers and sisters. As the word of Allah surah Al-Baqarah: 261. Meaning: The parable (income issued by) those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah  is similar to a seed that grows seven ears, in each ear a hundred seeds. Allah multiplies (rewards) for whom He wills. and Allah is Extensive (His bounty) and All-Knowing. (QS. Al-Baqarah: 261)
5. Maintain health. According to research by doctors, fasting means emptying the stomach from piles of food. This is useful for emptying the stomach and resting the digestive muscles so they can concentrate more perfectly, which in turn makes the body healthy. As the words of Rasulullah SAW which means: "Fast you, then you will be healthy". (HR, Abu Dawud0
6. Training patience, the act of fasting is an act of worship that requires patience in its implementation. People who do not have patience will not be able to fast. Rasulullah SAW said: It means: "Fasting is half patience". (HR. Ibnu Majah and Abu Hurairah) People who practice fasting are trained to be able to have patience, namely: a) patience in obeying God's commands, b) patience in controlling oneself from committing sins, and c) patience in facing suffering As the words of SWT: Meaning: And as for those who fear the greatness of their Lord and restrain themselves from the desires of their lusts. So verily heaven is his abode. (QS. An-Nazi'at: 40-41)
7. Eliminating sins. Fasting will be able to erase sins, as the hadith of the prophet:
Meaning: Whoever establishes Ramadan fasting with full faith and goodness, his past sins will be forgiven. (Narrated by Bukhari Muslim)
Zakat comes from the word zaka which means: holy, clean, growing and commendable.
According to the terms of the science of jurisprudence: Zakat is a certain amount of property that is required by Allah to be handed over to those who are entitled to receive it, with certain conditions. The wisdom of zakat is as follows:
1. Helping people who are weak and in need so that they can fulfill their obligations towards Allah and towards Allah's creatures (society).
2. Rid yourself of miserliness and despicable morals, and educate yourself to be noble and generous by getting into the habit of paying trusts to people who are entitled and concerned. As Allah says:
Meaning: Take zakat from some of their assets, with that zakat you cleanse them and erase their mistakes. (QS. At-Tauba: 103)
3. As an embodiment of gratitude and gratitude for the favors of wealth given to him. It is no longer valid that the gratitude shown by those who are given to those who give is the most important obligation in the sense of decency.
4. In order to take care of the evils that will arise from the poor and from the difficult. How much we see for ourselves every day how great the struggle of life is, how many good people still become big criminals, and then destroy the society, the nation and the country. As Allah SWT said: Meaning: Never let those who are stingy with the wealth that God has given them from His bounty think that being stingy is good for them. In fact, that miserliness is bad for them. (QS. Ali Imron: 180)
5. In order to bring closer the relationship of affection and love between the poor and the rich. The meeting of these relations will produce some goodness and progress, as well as be beneficial for both groups and the general public.
According to language, pilgrimage is to go somewhere repeatedly, to a place that is glorified or in the environment. What is glorified and sanctified by Muslims is the different Baitullah in the city of Mecca.
According to the terms, pilgrimage is deliberately visiting Baitullah and other exalted places with the intention to carry out worship in certain ways, conditions and at certain times, according to the guidance of Rasulullah SAW.
• The time of the pilgrimage from 1 Shawwal to 9 Dzulhijah.
• Places where the pilgrimage is performed, namely in the cities of Mecca and Medina (kharomain).
• The law of carrying out the pilgrimage is fardhu 'ain for Muslims who can afford it, for the first time, also for nadzar, while the second and so on are punished as sunnah. As the word of Allah: Meaning: Carrying out the pilgrimage is a human obligation towards Allah for those who are able to travel to the Baitullah. And whoever denies (the obligation of Hajj), then verily Allah is Rich of the Worlds. (QS. Ali Imran: 98)
The wisdom of Hajj is:
1. Increase faith and piety to Allah SWT. Many Hajj and Umrah activities can increase faith and devotion to Allah SWT, such as standing, towah and sya'i.
2. Strengthening Islamic ukhuwah. During the Hajj pilgrimage, Muslims from various countries were present so as to increase friendship.
3. Growing a willingness to sacrifice. In the pilgrimage, you are accustomed to growing a willingness to sacrifice, be it wealth, energy, mind or soul even to achieve the pleasure of Allah SWT.
4. Cultivate a sense of equality. In carrying out the pilgrimage, it is required to wear ihrom, the ihrom clothing shows equality between humans.
5. Showing gratitude to Allah for the sustenance He has bestowed.
6. Increase knowledge and experience, knowing historical places that are very famous in the world.
7. Become a forum for the grand congress of the world's Muslims, every year. During the pilgrimage, Muslims from all over the world gather to form a grand congress as a forum for communication and exchanging information.
8. Train discipline. In the pilgrimage you are always accustomed to fulfilling various rules that must be done and which are not allowed to be done so that pilgrims are accustomed to fostering discipline.
Principles of Islamic Inheritance Law
The principle of Ijbari Etymologically, the word ijbari means compulsion (compulsory), which is to do something against one's own will. In terms of inheritance law, it means that there is a transfer of the property of someone who has died to someone who is still alive by itself, meaning that without any legal action or statement of will from the heir, even the heir (during his lifetime) cannot refuse or prevent the transfer from occurring.
Individual principle, where inheritance can be divided among heirs according to their respective parts, except in the case of inheritance in the form of land less than 2 ha (Article 189 KHI in conjunction with Article 89 Law Number 56/Prp/1960 concerning Determination of Agricultural Land) and in the event that the heirs agree not to share the inheritance but to form a joint venture each of which owns shares in accordance with the portion of their inheritance.
The principle of balanced justice, where the ratio of the share of men to women's share is 2: 1, except in certain circumstances. The difference between men's and women's share is because men's and women's obligations in the household are different. The man as the head of the household has the obligation to provide for his wife and children, while the wife as a housewife has no obligation to provide for her family members except for the children if the husband does not have the ability to do so. Regarding the male share being twice the female share, it can be deviated if the heirs agree to divide the male and female shares equally after they know each other's actual share according to law.
The principle of inheritance due to death, meaning that there is a transfer of material and immaterial rights from a person to his relatives in an inherited manner applies after the person dies.
The principle of blood relations
namely blood relations as a result of legal marriages, subhat marriages and on the recognition of children (principles of Islamic fiqh).
The principle of a mandatory will,
means that the adopted child and the adoptive father can reciprocally make a will regarding their respective assets, if there is no will from the adopted child to the adoptive father or vice versa, then the adoptive father and/or adopted child can be given a mandatory will by the Religious Court or the Syari' Court Yes ex officio a maximum of 1/3 of the inheritance (Article 209 KHI).
The principle of egalitarianism means that because of blood relations, those who embrace religions other than Islam receive a mandatory testament of a maximum of 1/3 of the share, and may not exceed the share of heirs who are equal to them (jurisprudence).
Limited Retroactive Principle, KHI is not retroactive in the sense that if the inheritance has been divided in real terms (not just the distribution on paper) before the KHI is enacted, then families who have blood relations as substitute heirs cannot file an inheritance suit. If the inheritance has not been divided in real terms, then in cases of inheritance where the heir dies before the KHI is born, the KHI can automatically apply retroactively.
1. Worship in language (etymology) means to humble oneself and submit. Meanwhile, according to syara' (terminology) Worship is a term that includes all that is loved and pleased by Allah Azza wa Jalla, whether in the form of words or deeds, the outward and the spiritual.
2. Muamalah are sharia laws relating to world affairs, and human life, such as buying and selling, trading, and so on
3. Etymological Definition of Morals According to the etymological approach, the word "akhlak" comes from the Arabic plural 'from the mufrad form "Khuluqun" which according to the dialect means: manners, temperament, behavior or character.
4. Aqidah is the foundation of Islam which is inseparable from other Islamic teachings: morality , worship and Muamalat. A strong belief will lead to true worship, praiseworthy morals and good deeds. Apart from being a foundation, the relationship between aqidah and other Islamic teachings can also be reciprocal and symbiotic. That is, obedience to performing worship, having good manners, and having a good prayer will preserve the faith.
5. If aqidah has been owned and worship has been carried out by humans, then these two things must be carried out as well as possible, therefore there is a need for a regulation that regulates all of this. The rule is called Muamalah. Muamalah are all Islamic rules that regulate relations between human beings. Muamalah is said to run well if it has a good social impact. To be able to realize a strong aqeedah, namely by means of true worship and good muamalah, it is necessary to have something
Based on the discussion and conclusions, the authors provide suggestions that the Koran and Sunnah are two guidelines, guidelines and guidelines for life as well as the main source for Muslims to serve as an analytical guide in studying every problem that arises in life. Therefore it is important for Muslims to continue to hold fast to the Qur'an and As-Sunnah and to understand the meanings contained in the Al-Qur'an and As-Sunah. And with the Qur'an and As Sunnah can also strengthen Aqidah, Worship, Muamalah and Morals of mankind.
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